Immersion, Shock, Drowning, Hypothermia

Immersion, Shock, Drowning, Hypothermia

Revised: Tuesday, January 26, 2016

Key Concepts:

  • 1)     Describe an Immersion Incident.
  • 2)     Describe the human physiological events of sudden Cold Water Shock as outlined in the Giesbrecht “1-10-1” Model.
  • 3)     Describe the most important factors affecting the chance of surviving an Immersion Incident.
  • 4)     Describe the immediate On-Scene Management of an Immersion Incident
  • 5)     Describe the importance of following traditional CPR in Immersion Incidents which emphasizes rescue breathing followed by chest compressions.
  • 6)     Describe hypothermia(mild, moderate, and severe) including definition, symptoms, and treatment. 

See the full article attached

Also, see "Patterns of Illness", a medical journal article reviewing the 1996 VOR injury history.

 Kent Benedict, MD, FACEP

Dr. Kent Benedict is a graduate of UC Berkeley, USC Keck School of Medicine and specialty trained at Stanford University. He is an emergency physician and USCG Licensed Master(100 Tons). For 22 years he was the Chief Medical Officer for the California State University Maritime Academy's training ship, USTS GOLDEN BEAR.



John Taussig ,
Francis O'Connell ,
, Kent Benedict
, Denny Emory
, Sue and Jim Corenman, Kent Benedict
Wright, John, MD ,